FrontPage UnderstandingSocialNetworks

Preface

1. 1. Introduction

Getting Connected
Networks as Information Maps
Leaders and Followers
Networks as Conduits
The Point of View

2. 2. Basic Network Concepts, Part I: Individual Members of Networks

Introduction
What Is a Network?
Sociological Questions about Relationships
Connections
Propinquity
Homophily
Individual-Level Homophily
Homophily and Collectivities
Dyads and Mutuality
Balance and Triads
Where We Are Now

3. 3. Basic Network Concepts, Part II: Whole Social Networks

Distributions
Dyads and Triads
Density
Structural Holes
Weak Ties
Popularity or Centrality
Distance
Size of the Interpersonal Environment
The Small World
Multiplexity
Roles and Positions
Named Positions and Relationships
Informal Positions and Relationships
Informal Relations and Hierarchies
Embeddedness of the Informal within Instituted or Named Networks
Observed Roles
Summary

4. 4. Basic Network Concepts, Part III: Network Segmentation

Introduction
Named and Unnamed Network Segments
Primary Groups, Cliques, and Clusters
Segmenting Networks from the Point of View of the Observer
Segmenting Groups on the Basis of Cohesion
Resistance to Disruption
Structural Similarity and Structural Equivalence
Core/Periphery Structures
Where We Are Now

4.1. Introduction

... to develop ways of describing and analyzing these clusters or groups and to separate whole networks into smaller meaningful segments....

An influential article even claimed “that the presently existing, largely categorical descriptions of social structure have no solid theoretical grounding; furthermore, network concepts may provide the only way to construct a theory of social structure” (White, Boorman, and Breiger 1976, 732).

  • Blockmodeling . . . by White

4.2. Named and Unnamed Network Segments

emic clusters ... named by the members of the culture . . .
etic clusters



4.2.1. Primary Groups, Cliques, and Clusters

4.3. Segmenting Networks from the Point of View of the Observer

Groupings . . . master ideas
cohesiveness or closeness = structural similarity

4.3.1. Segmenting Groups on the Basis of Cohesion

Clique
A mathematical definition — a maximal complete subgraph of three or more nodes (Luce and Perry 1949).
In a maximal complete subgraph ... everyone is connected to everyone.
Conceptually a clique is
a sub-set of a network in which the actors are more closely and intensely tied to one another than they are to other members of the network.
Formally, a clique is the maximum number of actors who have all possible ties present among themselves. A "Maximal complete sub-graph" is such a grouping, expanded to include as many actors as possible.
Network>Subgroups>Cliques in UCINET

Nclique
is . . . to define an actor as a member of a clique if they are connected to every other member of the group at a distance greater than one. Usually, the path distance two is used.

4.3.2. Resistance to Disruption

4.3.3. Structural Similarity and Structural Equivalence

4.4. Core/Periphery Structures

4.5. Where We Are Now

5. 5. The Psychological Foundations of Social Networks

Getting Things Done
Community and Support
Safety and Affiliation
Effectiveness and Structural Holes
Safety and Social Networks
Effectiveness and Social Networks
Both Safety and Effectiveness?
Driving for Status or Rank
Cultural Differences in Safety, Effectance, and Rank
Motivations and Practical Networks
Motivations of Corporate Actors
Cognitive Limits on Individual Networks
Where We Are Now

6. 6. Small Groups, Leadership, and Social Networks: The Basic Building Blocks

Introduction
Primary Groups and Informal Systems: Propositions
Pure Informal Systems
How to Find Informal Systems
Asymmetric Ties and the Influence of the External System
Formalizing the System
Where We Are Now

7. 7. Organizations and Networks

The Contradictions of Authority
Emergent Networks in Organizations
The Factory Floor
Information-Driven Organizations
Inside the Box, Outside the Box, or Both
Bridging the Gaps: Tradeoffs between Network Size, Diversity, and Social Cohesion
Where We Are Now

8. 8. The Small World, Circles, and Communities

Introduction
How Many People Do You Know?
The Skewed Distribution of the Number of People One Knows
Formal Small World Models
Clustering in Social Networks
Social Circles
The Small World Search
Applications of Small World Theory to Smaller Worlds
Where We Are Now

9. 9. Networks, Influence, and Diffusion

Networks and DiffusionAn Introduction
The Basic Model
Exogenous Factors in the Adoption of Innovations
Influence and Decision-Making
The Current State of Personal Influence
Self-Designated Opinion Leaders or Influentials
Characteristics of Opinion Leaders and Influentials
Group Influence
Epidemiology and Network Diffusion
Social Networks and Epidemiology
Social Networks and HIV-AIDS
Transporting DiseaseLarge-Scale Models
Tipping Points and Thresholds
Threshold
Where We Are Now

10. 10. Networks as Social Capital

Introduction
The General Idea of Social Capital
Social Capital as an Investment
Individual-Level Social Capital
Social Support
Individual Networked Resources: Position and Resource Generators
Correlates of Individual Social Capital
Other Indicators of Networked Resources
Social Capital as an Attribute of Social Systems
Theorists of Social System Social Capital
Bowling Alone
Recent Findings on Social System Social Capital and Its Consequences
Where We Are Now

11. 11. Ethical Dilemmas of Social Network Research

Networks as a Research Paradigm
Anonymity, Confidentiality, Privacy, and Consent
Who Benefits
Cases and Examples
Survey Research
Organization Research
Terrorists and Criminals
Networks and Terrorism: The CASOS Projects
Conclusion: More Complicated than the Belmont Report

12. 12. Coda: Ten Master Ideas of Social Networks

Introduction
The Ten Master Ideas

13. NOTES

14. BIBLIOGRAPHY

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