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Research Proposal
@(연구) 입학사정센터_입학처 웹사이트 홍보이용방안_20091117.hwp (304 KB)
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1. Aids and misc

2. Calendar

Research Caldenar
Calendar
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2009-12-02
오늘 회의 안건과 내용 정리할 것.

4. . . .

Raposo, M. A., Helena. (2007). A model of university choice: an exploratory approach. University Library of Munich, Germany. http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5523/

Murphy, 1981
  • Influence of brothers and
  • Academic reputation and costs
Webb, 1993
  • Academic reputation
  • Accreditations
  • Proximity
  • Costs
  • Potential marketability of the degree
Chapman, 1993
  • Quality of faculty
  • Quality of degrees
  • Overall academic reputation
Coccari and Javalgi (1995)
  • Quality of faculty
  • Degree programs
  • Cost
  • Variety of offerings
  • Classroom instruction
Kallio (1995)
  • Residency
  • Academic environment
  • Reputation and institution quality
  • Course diversity
  • Size of the institution
  • Financial aid
Lin (1997)
  • Quality of education
  • International
  • Facilities and costs
  • Student life
Donnellan (2002)
  • Personal contacts
  • Influence of parents
  • Location
  • Social life
  • Availability of a variety of degrees
Soutar and Turner (2002)
  • Course suitability
  • Academic reputation
  • Job prospects
  • Teaching quality
Shanka, Quintal and Taylor (2005)
  • Proximity to home
  • Quality/variety of education
  • Cost of living/tuition
  • Friends study
  • Family recommendation
  • Safety
Holdswoth and Nind (2005)
  • Quality and flexibility of the degree/course combinations
  • Availability of accommodation
  • Whether or not employers are likely to recruit from that university
  • Costs
  • Spatial proximity to home

5. References


Chapin, T., & Fitzgerald, J. (2002). Student Recruitment and the World Wide Web: An Analysis of the Supply of and Demand for Online Information in Planning. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 21(4), 419-423. http://jpe.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/21/4/419
Despite consensus that a World Wide Web (WWW) presence is crucial for any academic program, there has been very little investigation into the supply of information by Web sites and the demand for information by prospective students. This is a gap in the literature that this article attempts to fill. Two data sets lie at the heart of this work: (1) a census of the WWW sites of Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning (ACSP)-accredited planning programs and (2) a student survey of online information preferences. Findings indicate that the supply of information reflects demand rather well, with only a few existing gaps in online information. Despite this, a number of shortcomings remain concerning online information provision by planning programs. Web sites should emphasize content, but organization, connectivity, and style all play important roles in effective recruitment as well.

Bodycott, P. (2009). Choosing a higher education study abroad destination: What mainland Chinese parents and students rate as important. Journal of Research in International Education, 8(3), 349-373. http://jri.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/8/3/349
Mainland China is one of the largest sources of undergraduate and postgraduate students. Previous research has identified the push - pull factors and features that influence a student choice of study abroad destination. This article extends understanding by identifying and examining what 251 mainland Chinese parents and 100 students rated as most and least important when considering study abroad. Findings highlight differences in parent - student ratings of importance and the consequent need for marketers to pay greater attention to cultural values when looking to recruit students from Confucian societies.
Johnson, J. M. (1987). Student Recruitment Strategies In Undergraduate Home Economics Programs: An Exploratory Study. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 15(3), 169-176. http://fcs.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/15/3/169
The survival of some college programs may depend on their ability to recruit students. The number of persons in the 18-24 year age group will steadily de cline for some time. The purpose of this study was to discover the recruitment strategies used in home economics programs and to discover if the strategies used differed by size of program, environment, or group responsible for planning recruitment. Surveys were mailed to 160 administrators of undergraduate pro grams. Results indicate that size of program, group most responsible for planning recruitment, and environment does affect the extent of use of some selected strategies. Knowing recruitment strategies and influences imposed by the organi zation may suggest alternatives to those responsible for planning recruitment.
Lee, J. J. (2008). Beyond Borders: International Student Pathways to the United States. Journal of Studies in International Education, 12(3), 308-327. http://jsi.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/12/3/308
This study investigates college access in the United States and within the larger context of the global marketplace as a way to extend current views of college access to the international realm. Using surveys and interviews among international students in a case U.S. institution, this study finds that information sources and reasons for studying at the U.S. institution differ by international student background characteristics. This study then further elaborates on the diverse pathways based on international students' backgrounds as a way to expand current conceptions of college access.
Pimpa, N. (2003). The Influence of Peers and Student Recruitment Agencies on Thai Students' Choices of International Education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 7(2), 178-192. http://jsi.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/7/2/178
This article explores various influencing factors from peers and agents on Thai students' choices of international education. The study classifies choices of international education into the decision to study abroad, choice of country, city, academic program, and university. The influences from peers and agents are identified as information, persuasion, and competition. The results indicate that agents exert a stronger influence than peers on Thai students' choices of international education. The study also suggests that Thai students from different levels of education perceived the influence of peers and agents in a different way. Therefore, it can be concluded that the need for international education and the decision-making process of these groups of students are dissimilar, as the decision-making process of international students is complex and involves various stakeholders. This information affords protagonists marketing Australian education a better understanding of choices made by international students.
Venegas, K. M. (2006). Internet Inequalities: Financial Aid, the Internet, and Low-Income Students. American Behavioral Scientist, 49(12), 1652-1669. http://abs.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/49/12/1652
This article focuses on the Web-based resources available to low-income students as they build their perceptions, make their decisions, and engage in financial aid activities. Data are gathered from the results of focus groups and case studies. Findings suggest that low-income students do have access to computers but lack the knowledge and support needed to navigate the financial aid resources available online.

5.1. College choice

Chapin, T., & Fitzgerald, J. (2002). Student Recruitment and the World Wide Web: An Analysis of the Supply of and Demand for Online Information in Planning. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 21(4), 419-423. http://jpe.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/21/4/419
Despite consensus that a World Wide Web (WWW) presence is crucial for any academic program, there has been very little investigation into the supply of information by Web sites and the demand for information by prospective students. This is a gap in the literature that this article attempts to fill. Two data sets lie at the heart of this work: (1) a census of the WWW sites of Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning (ACSP)-accredited planning programs and (2) a student survey of online information preferences. Findings indicate that the supply of information reflects demand rather well, with only a few existing gaps in online information. Despite this, a number of shortcomings remain concerning online information provision by planning programs. Web sites should emphasize content, but organization, connectivity, and style all play important roles in effective recruitment as well.
Cober, R. T., Brown, D. J., Keeping, L. M., & Levy, P. E. (2004). Recruitment on the Net: How Do Organizational Web Site Characteristics Influence. Journal of Management, 30(5), 623-646. http://jom.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/30/5/623
The use of organizational web sites for recruitment has become increasingly common. Despite their widespread growth, however, little is known about how these web sites influence recruitment outcomes. In the current paper, we present a model that explicates how job seekers interact with and respond to web site characteristics to predict various job seeker attitudes and behaviors. We suggest that job seekers are initially affected by the facade of a web site, comprised of the web site's aesthetic and playfulness features. Coupled with system features of the web site, these initial affective reactions then influence perceptions of the usability of the web site. Perceptions of usability and affective reactions work through two key mediating constructs, job seeker search behavior and web site attitude, to ultimately predict applicant attraction. Throughout the paper we present a series of testable propositions that should serve to guide future research.
Pimpa, N. (2003). The Influence of Peers and Student Recruitment Agencies on Thai Students' Choices of International Education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 7(2), 178-192. http://jsi.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/7/2/178
This article explores various influencing factors from peers and agents on Thai students' choices of international education. The study classifies choices of international education into the decision to study abroad, choice of country, city, academic program, and university. The influences from peers and agents are identified as information, persuasion, and competition. The results indicate that agents exert a stronger influence than peers on Thai students' choices of international education. The study also suggests that Thai students from different levels of education perceived the influence of peers and agents in a different way. Therefore, it can be concluded that the need for international education and the decision-making process of these groups of students are dissimilar, as the decision-making process of international students is complex and involves various stakeholders. This information affords protagonists marketing Australian education a better understanding of choices made by international students.

5.2. Web site design and Information design, Evaluation


Breuch, L.-A. M. K., Zachry, M., & Spinuzzi, C. (2001). Usability Instruction in Technical Communication Programs: New Directions in Curriculum Development. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 15(2), 223-240. http://jbt.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/15/2/223
Although usability testing and research have become critical tasks for technical communicators in the workplace, little discussion in technical communication focuses on teaching usability in technical communication programs. This article asserts that technical communication programs are particularly well positioned to adopt usability testing and research in their curricula because of inherent connections between usability and technical communication, such as their mutual emphases on audience analysis, technology, and information design. Approaches to implementation of usability courses at three universities are described, and the authors share suggestions for adopting usability in the areas of curriculum, equipment, and facilities needed for conducting usability.
Cheh, J. A., Ribisl, K. M., & Wildemuth, B. M. (2003). An Assessment of the Quality and Usability of Smoking Cessation Information on the Internet. Health Promot Pract, 4(3), 278-287. http://hpp.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/4/3/278
Little is known about the quality and usability of on-line health information. This analysis evaluated smoking cessation Web sites' content quality and usability. Thirty sites were analyzed to determine their adherence to established tobacco cessation guidelines and their accessibility, usability, credibility, and currency. Most explained addiction (86.7%) and mentioned nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (93.3%) and social support (93.3%). However, few explained potential side effects of NRT (33.3%) or which smokers should avoid using NRT (30.0%). Two sites advocated substituting smokeless tobacco or herbal cigarettes when quitting, and 16 (53.3%) provided information written at greater than an eighth-grade level. Few sites provided a search mechanism (40.0%) or offered text-only versions (30.0%), and most (83.3%) failed to indicate when content pages were last updated. Most sites adhered to established cessation guidelines. A small subset offered erroneous and potentially harmful information. Applying fundamental design principles would improve accessibility, usability, credibility, and currency.
Faiola, A., & MacDorman, K. F. (2008). The influence of holistic and analytic cognitive styles on online information design: Toward a communication theory of cultural cognitive design. Article. Information, Communication & Society, 11(3), 348-374. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=31611568&site=ehost-live
Although studies have linked culture to online user preferences and performance, few communication researchers have recognized the impact of culture on online information design and usability. It is important to ask if people are better able to use and prefer Web sites created by designers from their own culture. We propose that to improve computer-mediated communication, Web site design should accommodate culturally diverse user groups. First, a body of research is presented that aligns East Asian cultures with more holistic cognitive styles and Western cultures with more analytical cognitive styles. Building on this contrast, a theory of cultural cognitive design is proposed as a means of understanding how cognitive styles that develop under the influence of culture lead to different ways of designing and organizing information for the Web.
Jones, S. L. (2007). Evolution of Corporate Homepages: 1996 to 2006. Journal of Business Communication, 44(3), 236-257. http://job.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/44/3/236
This study compares samples of corporate homepages gathered in 1996 and 1997 with homepages of the same sites gathered in 2006. Based on the example of the evolution of typography following the invention of the printing press, it is hypothesized that homepages of 2006 will be more homogenous with each other than the earlier samples and will thus exhibit the development of standardization. The study finds increased standardization in the 2006 homepages in the categories of homepage length, primary navigation orientation, primary navigation style, focal point, and search engine presence and location.
Kaplanidou, K., & Vogt, C. (2006). A Structural Analysis of Destination Travel Intentions as a Function of Web Site Features. Journal of Travel Research, 45(2), 204-216. http://jtr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/45/2/204
This study used the technology acceptance model to assess the influence of tourism Web site characteristics on perceived Web site usefulness in planning a trip. Furthermore, the impact of Web site usefulness on intentions to travel to a destination was examined using structural equation modeling analysis. Consumer characteristics such as previous visits to the destination or its Web site, online travel-planning experience, and Internet use were included in the model. The results showed that motivating visuals and trip information functionality were significant predictors of Web site usefulness. Web site usefulness was a significant predictor of intent to travel to the destination, whereas previous visits to the destination or its Web site had significant but small negative influence on intentions to travel. The motivating visuals factor was also a significant direct predictor of intentions to travel to the destination, whereas trip information functionality had indirect influence on intentions through Web site usefulness. Specific theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
Kim, H., & Fesenmaier, D. R. (2008). Persuasive Design of Destination Web Sites: An Analysis of First Impression. Journal of Travel Research, 47(1), 3-13. http://jtr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/47/1/3
This research examines the persuasiveness of destination Web sites through an investigation of users' first impression. To achieve this goal, it builds on research by Fogg (2003) and by Kim and Fesenmaier (2007) to assess the effect of the design factors of destination Web sites on first impression formation. The results of this study indicate that the participants were able to make quick judgments on tourism Web sites and that inspiration and usability were the primary drivers evoking a favorable first impression. This research concludes by discussing the implications of these findings and possible directions for future study.
Maloney, K., & Bracke, P. J. (2004). Beyond Information Architecture: A Systems Integration Approach to Web-site Design. <Article>. Information Technology & Libraries, 23(4), 145-152. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=16071964&site=ehost-live
Users' needs and expectations regarding access to information have fundamentally changed, creating a disconnect between how users expect to use a library Web site and how the site was designed. At the same time, library technical infrastructures include legacy systems that were not designed for the Web environment. The authors propose a framework that combines elements of information architecture with approaches to incremental system design and implementation. The framework allows for the development of a Web site that is responsive to changing user needs, while recognizing the need for libraries to adopt a cost-effective approach to implementation and maintenance.
Manzari, L., & Trinidad-Christensen, J. (2006). User-Centered Design of a Web Site for Library and Information Science Students: Heuristic Evaluation and Usability Testing. <Article>. Information Technology & Libraries, 25(3), 163-169. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=22544651&site=ehost-live
This study describes the life cycle of a library Web site created with a user-centered design process to serve a graduate school of library and information science (LIS). Findings based on a heuristic evaluation and usability study were applied in an iterative redesign of the site to better serve the needs of this special academic library population. Recommendations for design of Web-based services for library patrons from LIS programs are discussed, as well as implications for Web sites for special libraries within larger academic library settings.
Middleton, I., McConnell, M., & Davidson, G. (1999). Presenting a model for the structure and content of a university World Wide Web site. Journal of Information Science, 25(3), 219-227. http://jis.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/25/3/219
This paper proposes a model for the structure and content of a university World Wide Web site, by a process of: (1) identifying who the site is serving and the information needs of these individuals or groups; (2) identifying institutional information needs; (3) relating this data to the content provided; (4) presenting the content in a manner suited to the characteristics and information needs of the target user groups. Through an analysis of existing UK higher education institution (HEI) Web sites and an extensive literature review, a case is made for a non-static approach to Web design which identifies users and makes extensive use of themes to promote currently relevant information at the top level. The authors propose a link-rich environment which does not rely on user categorisation and exploration of long sequences of links and is not constrained by traditional boundaries between departments. The authors contend that such an approach is yet to be adopted in UK HEIs, but is beginning to occur at HEIs in the USA.
Park, Y. A., & Gretzel, U. (2007). Success Factors for Destination Marketing Web Sites: A Qualitative Meta-Analysis. Journal of Travel Research, 46(1), 46-63. http://jtr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/46/1/46
Destination marketing organizations invest considerable amounts of money in the development of Web sites as part of their overall promotion efforts. With increasing pressure on their budgets, it becomes ever more important for these organizations to assess the effectiveness of their Web sites, evaluate the return on their investments, and derive feedback on necessary improvements. Web site evaluation measures have been proposed in many ways and various contexts over the past decade. The study presented in this article used a qualitative meta-analysis methodology to synthesize the diverse findings. A unified framework of commonly used Web site success factors emerged from the analysis and included a total of nine factors: (1) information quality; (2) ease of use; (3) responsiveness; (4) security/privacy; (5) visual appearance; (6) trust; (7) interactivity; (8) personalization; and (9) fulfillment. Additional factors to further inform Web evaluation efforts were identified based on Werthner and Klein's dimensions of Web communication. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for future research.
Peterson, K. (2006). Academic Web Site Design and Academic Templates: Where Does the Library Fit In? Information Technology & Libraries, 25(4), 217-221. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=23830464&site=ehost-live
Academic Web site design continues to evolve as colleges and universities are under increasing pressure to create a Web site that is both hip and professional looking. Many colleges and universities are using templates to unify the look and feel of their Web sites. Where does the library Web site fit into a comprehensive campus design scheme? The library Web site is unique due to the wide range of services and content available. Based on a poster session presented at the Twelfth Annual Association of College and Research Libraries conference in Minneapolis, Minnesota, April 2005, this paper explores the prevalence of university-wide academic templates on library Web sites and discusses factors libraries should consider in the future.
Soh, L.-K., Zhang, J., & Samal, A. (2006). A Task-Based Approach to User Interface Design for a Web-Based Hydrologic Information Systems. Article. Transactions in GIS, 10(3), 417-449. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=20535392&site=ehost-live
Hydroinformatics is a new and rapidly developing field that integrates knowledge and understanding of water resources with the latest developments in information technology to improve decision-making in many critical applications. It encompasses methods for data capture, storage, processing, analysis and visualization, and the use of advanced modeling, simulation, optimization and knowledge-based tools and systems infrastructure. Three types of hydrological data are most commonly used: flow rate in major rivers and streams, height of water in wells, and precipitation. To get a complete view of the state of water at a given point in space and time, one must analyze many different types of hydrological data together to derive information using an online GIS tool. To help use these disparate data sources more effectively and efficiently, we have built an online interface called the IJEDI WebCenter for Hydroinformatics using a task-based approach. In this design, we first identify the tasks that users perform to study water-related issues, then organize data for each task, and build task-specific tools to present and analyze data and information. In a study involving both novices and experts in hydrology, we found that the both groups performed water-related studies more effectively and efficiently than they would have without the WebCenter.
Taylor, M. J., Salces, F. S., & Duffy, S. P. (2005). Teaching web site design: science or art? Article. Journal of Further & Higher Education, 29(4), 331-340. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=19019517&site=ehost-live
In this paper we discuss an approach to teaching web site design to higher education (HE) students that attempts to balance the artistic and scientific aspects of the web site design process. The design of IT systems has traditionally been viewed as a technical activity. However, unlike existing types of IT systems, an organization's web site is available to the general public, and as such needs to be designed in a different manner, with far more emphasis on presentation and ease of use than existing types of IT systems. This is necessary since if the web site is not appealing to the user they can simply choose another web site, and potential customers or clients are lost. Hence, students need to be taught how to incorporate both artistic and scientific aspects when designing a web site.

5.3. Web site and (Health) Information

Bensley, R. J., & Lewis, J. B. (2002). Analysis of Internet-Based Health Assessments. Health Promot Pract, 3(4), 463-476. http://hpp.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/3/4/463
Health-assessment tools assist practitioners in developing interventions to promote health. An increasing number of online health assessments have evolved recently, creating a need to evaluate for usefulness and effectiveness. This study reviewed 42 online health assessments based on recommendations developed by the Scientific Panel on Interactive Communication and Health. Four types of health assessments were reviewed, with Health Status/Positive Well-Being types, as a whole, demonstrating the highest scores. At least 75% of all sites received maximum scores for items related to background of developers and sponsors, purpose of site, and site design. Fewer than 1 of 5 sites received a maximum score for content issues, confidentiality, and evaluation results and effectiveness. Particularly poor scores were received for the evaluation criteria. Developers of online health assessments need to modify sites to incorporate evaluation results and effectiveness. Practitioners need to be cautious in using sites with no reported evaluation efforts.
Breuch, L.-A. M. K., Zachry, M., & Spinuzzi, C. (2001). Usability Instruction in Technical Communication Programs: New Directions in Curriculum Development. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 15(2), 223-240. http://jbt.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/15/2/223
Although usability testing and research have become critical tasks for technical communicators in the workplace, little discussion in technical communication focuses on teaching usability in technical communication programs. This article asserts that technical communication programs are particularly well positioned to adopt usability testing and research in their curricula because of inherent connections between usability and technical communication, such as their mutual emphases on audience analysis, technology, and information design. Approaches to implementation of usability courses at three universities are described, and the authors share suggestions for adopting usability in the areas of curriculum, equipment, and facilities needed for conducting usability.
Descy, D. E. (2006). The Wiki: True Web Democracy. Article. TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 50(1), 4-5. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=21544063&site=ehost-live
The article discusses the features of the Wiki, a piece of software that gives users viewing a web page the ability to edit that web page using any web browsers. The author considered this concept as true web democracy as the open-editing capability places real powers into the hands of the user. Anybody can enter their own input into anything that is written, or add their own changes, words, comments, definitions, articles and other else. The first thing to do to get connected is to go to WikiFarm, a site that hosts wikis. Among the highly rated WikiFarms on the web are the PeanutButterWiki, which hosts over 16,000 wikis, RitersCom, SeedWiki, Wikicities, and XWiki.com, which uses open source software and users can include blogs, photos and many other features.
Franck, L. S., & Noble, G. (2007). Here's an idea: ask the users! Young people's views on navigation, design and content of a health information website. J Child Health Care, 11(4), 287-297. http://chc.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/11/4/287
Use of the internet to provide health information to young people is a relatively recent development. Few studies have explored young people's views on how they use internet health websites. This study investigated the navigation, design and content preferences of young people using the Children First for Health (CFfH) website. Young people from five secondary schools completed an internet site navigation exercise, website evaluation questionnaire and participated in informal discussions. Of the participants, 45 percent visited the website section aimed at older adolescents within their first two clicks, regardless of their age. There were conflicting preferences for design and strong preference for gender-specific information on topics such as appearance, relationships, fitness and sexual health. The findings indicate the importance of gaining young people's views to ensure that health information websites meet the needs of their intended audience. Cooperation from schools can facilitate the process of gaining young people's views on internet website navigation, design and content.
Hu, Y., & Shyam Sundar, S. (2010). Effects of Online Health Sources on Credibility and Behavioral Intentions. Communication Research, 37(1), 105-132. http://crx.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/37/1/105
Online health information comes from a variety of online sources. Based on a typology of online sources, this research examines the direct and combined influences of original sources (doctors vs. laypersons) and selecting sources (Web sites vs. bulletin boards vs. blogs vs. personal home pages vs. Internet) on perceived credibility ofand behavioral intentions towardhealth information. A large 2 (message) x 2 (original source) x 5 (selecting source) full-factorial online experiment revealed that respondents (N = 555) were more likely to take action based on the information sourced from a Web site than from a blog or a personal home page. The effect was mediated by perceived level of gatekeeping and perceived information completeness. The analysis also yielded a three-way interaction between message, original source, and selecting source on perceived credibility, suggesting the operation of an appropriateness heuristic when evaluating source combinations for less relevant health topics. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, leading to the proposal of a new online source typology.
Thackeray, R., & Neiger, B. L. (2009). A Multidirectional Communication Model: Implications for Social Marketing Practice. Health Promot Pract, 10(2), 171-175. http://hpp.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/10/2/171
The landscape of sending and receiving information has changed dramatically in the past 25 years. The communication process is changing from being unidirectional to multidirectional as consumers are becoming active participants by creating, seeking, and sharing information using a variety of channels and devices. The purpose of this article is to describe how this shift in the communication process where gatekeepers control the creation and content of information and consumers are less active recipients to one that reflects a multidirectional and more dynamic process with participative consumerswill affect the social marketing process. This shift in communication does not represent an option for social marketers so much as a necessity. As professionals respond to this evolving communication model, the practice of social marketing can remain vibrant as a relevant consumer-oriented approach to behavior change.

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